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Segamat, Johor, Malaysia
Greetings~ My name is..as displayed above. It sounds "I DO" in mandarin 。◕‿◕。 I'm currently a first year student doing Bachelor of Science with Education ( TESL) in UTM. Fond of reading, writing, blogging, eating, tickling laughters, loving and being loved ❤ Dream to becoming my family's pride&joy and my students' good teacher one day...Yes I do ❤

Friday, 23 March 2012

Introduction to Networking

Again we attended the Telecommunication & Networking class with much enthusiastism after having to delay the lesson last week :)

The new topic learnt this week is " Introduction to Networking".

Dr. Dayang has provided an intriguing example to explain the term "networking" in a highly comprehensible way :D

Firstly, let's take a ride of time machine to travel back to the Stone Age. Put your safety belt on and here we go !! :D








Now you're caveman A. You normally use drums to transmit message.

One day, you want to invite your friend, the caveman B for a game of hurling rocks at each other.

 But caveman B is living too far away that he is unable to hear you banging the drum for invitation sake.

You have 3 options :

1. walk over to B's place
2. get a bigger drum
3. ask C who lives halfway in between to forward the message.

Performing NETWORKING, you'd choose the 3rd option.

Caveman C is equal to the data-sharing linkage between caveman A and B .o

In another context, NETWORKING is a collection of connected intelligent computing devices for the purpose of sharing data.

To be more precise, COMPUTER NETWORKING connects a computer with other computers or devices to bridge the communication.

The various types of network are categorized based on geographic coverage.

The most common ones are

LAN  ---> Local Area Network
  • confined to relatively small area
  • eg: lab, schook. building
  • rarely a mile apart ( between LANs computers )
  • typical configuration : 1 computer acts as a server to store all the softwares that control the network and to be shared by all the computers attached to the network.
 WAN  ---> Wide-Area Network
  • Connect larger geographic areas
  • eg : JB, Malaysia, the world.
  • Schools in JB can communicate with places like KL
  • cable and satellite uplinks 
  • uses multiplexing
MAN ---> Metropolitan Area Network
  • spans a city or a large campus
  • interconnects a number of LANs using technologies like fibre-optical links
  • provides up-links service to WAN and the internet.
PAN --->  Personal Area Network
  • used for communication among computerized devices, including telephone and personal digital assistants
  • intrapersonal communication 

How are networks categorized? Using 3 properties:

- Topology ( geometric arrangement of the network )
- Protocol ( common set of rules & signals )
- Architecture ( peer to peer, client/server )


Network topology indicates how a network is designed ; there are 4 main types of network structures :

Bus Network Structure


  • Only 1 computer can transfer information at a time.
  • Information moves through the entire length of the cable.
  • There is a terminator at the end of each cable
  • Terminator absorbs signals transmitted, prevents the signals from bouncing back and causing interference.
  • Advantage : simple
  • Disadvantage: difficult expansion, computer malfunction affects the entire network, expensive


 Star Network Structure

  • Individual computer connected to a centre point of the network
  • Most common type of network
  • Central network connector : hub
  • Cable length betwwen the hub and the computers < 100 meters.
  • Advantage: easy, computer malfunction doesn't affect the network.
  • Disadvantage : relies a lot on the hub to function, costly, large amounts of cable are used.
 Ring Strucure Structure

  •  individual computers connected to a single length of cable arranged in a ring.
  • The information travels in 1 direction only.
  • Used to connect computers locate close to each other.
  • No beginning or end in a ring network.
  • Advantage: easy to install, low cost, easy to determine the location of faulty connection, help prevent network shutdown.
  • Disadvantage: difficult expansion, expensive.

 Hybrid Network Structure

  • A mixture of many different kinds of network structures.
  • Centralization network layout.

Transmission Media:

* Bounded Media ( twisted pair wire, co-axial cable, fibre optic cables)
* Unbounded Media ( AM/FM radio, TV broadcasting, Satellite communication, Microwave radio, Infrare signals)

Network Electronic Device

  1.  Bridges
  2. Router
  3. private brance exhange (PBX)
  4. multiplexer
  5. concentrator
  6. front end processor
  7. hubs
  8. gateways


My little reflection of the day :

This life is also all about networking, isn't it ? XD

Befriend, Socialize, Study, Love....

and those are the stepping stones which get us nearer and make it easier to reach our destination :)





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